China calls the last Emperor of China, Aisin Gioro P'ui (愛新覺羅溥儀; Pinyin: Aixin Jeluo Puyi, 1906-67) as:
as a puppet of Japanese militarism and a betrayer of Chinese. P'ui was the last emperor of the Manchu Ch'ing Dynasty (清 1644-1912; Pinyin: Qing) who later became the Emperor of Manchu-kuo (滿洲國; 1932-45). However, I have a strong objection to this definition, "P'ui as a hanchien."
"Hanchien" (漢奸; Pinyin: Hanjian) — this word is used in Chinese to mean "a traitor" or "a betrayer."
Han (漢) [the Han Chinese, the ethnic majority of the Chinese]
Chien (奸) [Adultery]
It literary means:
A traitor to the Han Chinese
I am not interested in dwelling on this word hanchien like a literary scholar. But there is an indispensable matter you need to know to understand the definition of this word. To accuse a person of a hanchien, at least, he/she must be applicable to the prerequisite for this term that "he/she shall be a Han Chinese."
"A traitor to the Han Chinese" is a Han Chinese — of course, he/she is. Nothing is wrong. For example, in Japan, a person who is called "a traitor to his country" is undoubtedly a Japanese. It is very clear that a traitor must belong to the country or the ethnic group. If the person does not belong to the country or the ethnic group, he/she is not called a traitor — for example, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman and Douglas MacArthur have damaged Japan's national interest but they are not traitors to Japan because they are foreigners in Japan.
Anyway, let's go back to talk about P'ui whether he is a hanchien or not. The answer is quite clear. He is not applicable by any means at all. First, P'ui is a Manchurian not a Han so he does not fulfill the prerequisite of the term that his ethnic belonging must be the "Han Chinese." Second, P'ui was the Emperor of the Manchu Ch'ing Dynasty which the Manchus conquered whole China. In the case of Japan, for example, the country was "occupied" by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP, or General Headquarters) during 1945-52 after the Greater East Asian War (大東亞戰爭; English: Pacific War 太平洋戰爭; 1937-45), before recovering its sovereignty. During the occupation, the SCAP's Supreme Headquarter, General Douglas MacArthur behaved like the "Emperor of the victorious country." Policies of SCAP (practically the U.S.) to rule Japan included many which infringe the national interests of Japan (including the Constitution of Japan). A "foreigner" MacArthur was the "ruler" of Japan. No one called him "a traitor" although SCAP violated the national interest of Japan because he was a head of the "foreign occupation army." Similarly, P'ui was the Emperor of the Manchu Dynasty which ruled China. Third, during the wartime, he became the Emperor of Manchu-kuo which did not belong to China.
It is "Manchu-kuo" P'ui became the Emperor of. After the fall of the Ch'ing Dynasty, he just went back to his ancestral homeland of Manchuria to establish the Manchu country. It is the same thing that Mongolians still have their country Mongolia, Turks have Turkey, Austrians have Austria, Hungarians have Hungary and Germans have Germany after falls of these empires. P'ui did not attempt to occupy any part of the Han's land China again such as Shanghai or Canton. Manchuria is originally the land of the Manchurians however.
In conclusion, P'ui cannot be called a hanchien by any means because of his ethnic belonging, his throne status and the area he established Manchu-kuo. It is a mere delusion of the Han Chinese.
Currently, China calls Taiwanese secessionists Taidu Fenzi (臺獨分子). These people are mostly Pensheng-jen (本省人; Pinyin: Bensheng-ren)[*1] who have lived in Taiwan before Chian Kai-shek's (蔣介石) Kuomintang (國民黨, The Chinese Nationalist Party) occupied Taiwan.
"Taidu Fenzi" (臺獨分子; Wade-Giles: T'aitu Fentsu)
Tai (臺) [Taiwan]
Du (獨) [Independence]
Fenzi (分子) [Elements]
It literary means:
"Discontented elements who maneuver to separate Taiwan from China."
It is like a stigma, a hanchien upon P'ui. This is absolutely a China's delusion which its sinocentric desire to invade and rule surrounding countries made. The People's Republic of China (Communist China) had itself only been in existence since in 1949 and that has never ruled Taiwan for a single day. Taiwan had a seat on the United Nations Security Council with the name of "Republic of China" (Nationalist China) before the Communist China replaced in 1971. In fact, Taiwan has been an independent country more than a half century.
Related information (Links)
- Aisin Gioro P'ui (愛新覺羅溥儀). Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.
- Ch'ing Dynasty (清). Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.
- Manchu-kuo (滿洲國). Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.
- Franklin D. Roosevelt. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.
- Harry Truman. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.
- Douglas MacArthur. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.
- General Headquarters (Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers). Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.
- Chiang Kai-shek (蔣介石). Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.
- Kuomin-tang (國民黨, The Chinese National Party, KMT). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.