三國志 魏書 東夷傳 倭人條
"Ts'ao Wei history" of Sankuo chih ('Records of Three Kingdoms,' 3rd century)
Volume "Tung yi chuan" (Account of East Dwarfs)
Section "Wojen chuan" (The Wa People)
倭人在帶方東南大海之中、依山島爲國邑。舊百餘國。漢時有朝見者。今使譯所通三十國。The Wa (倭; ancient Chinese called Japan as "Wo," Japanese: Wa) people exist in the middle of the ocean on the southeast of the Daifang Commandery (帶方郡; around Seoul area in the Korean Peninsula) forming their provinces on the mountainous islands. There used to be over 100 provinces. In the period of the Han Dynasty (漢朝), Wa messengers came to the Imperial Court of Han. There are currently 30 provinces keeping corresponding through messengers and interpreters.
從郡至倭、循海岸水行、歴韓國、乍南乍東、到其北岸狗邪韓國、七千餘里。The way to Wa from the Daifang Commandery: sail along the coast, pass along Hanguk (Korea 韓國), keep going sometimes to the south and sometimes to the east, and then you will reach its northern coast Guya Hanguk (狗邪韓國, Guya Korea). The distance is over 7,000 li's (里, ancient Chinese nautical mile) (7,000 li's is app. 540km/340mi).
始度一海、千餘里至對海國。其大官曰卑狗、副曰卑奴母離。所居絶島、方可四百餘里。土地山險、多深林、道路如禽鹿徑。有千餘戸、無良田、食海物自活、乘船南北市糴。This is the first time to go across the sea. Sailing over 1,000 li's (app. 77km/48mi), you will arrive at Tuikai (對海國, Tsushima Province, Japan 對馬國, islands in the Korea Strait). Its tribal chief is called Hiku (卑狗), and the secondary chief is Hinamori (卑奴母離). The place they live is a group of solitary islands over a 400 square li's (app. 30km/20mi). Mountains are steep, forests are deep and roads are like animal paths. There are over 1,000 houses. Since fields are not good for rice farming, people's living style is self-sufficient for eating marine products. And they take ships to go to markets on the north and south of the sea.
又南渡一海千餘里、名曰瀚海、至一大國、官亦曰卑狗、副曰卑奴母離。方可三百里、多竹木叢林、有三千許家。差有田地、耕田猶不足食、亦南北市糴。Over 1,000 li's (77km/48mi) further to the south across the sea called the Kankai (瀚海), you will reach the Itai Province (一大國, current Iki 壱岐 , Japan). Its tribal chief is also called Hiku, and the secondary chief is also Hinamori. The size of the land is about a 300 square li's (23km/15mi). This island has many dense bamboo tree forests. There are about 3,000 houses. There are some rice fields but still not enough for people to eat. They have to go to the markets on the south and north.
又渡一海千余里、至末廬國。有四千余戸、濱山海居。草木茂盛、行不見前人。好捕魚鰒深浅、皆沈没取之。And furthermore, over 1,000 li's to the south across the sea, you will reach the Matsuro Province (末廬國, current Matsuura Peninsula of Kita-Kyūshū, Japan 北九州・松浦半島). There are about 4,000 houses between the mountains and the sea. Thickets are dense and tall that you are sometimes unable to see people in front of you. People are good divers to catch fish and abalone. Regardless it's deep or shallow, they dive everywhere.
(end of quotation)
This is the beginning of the Wojen chuan [People of the Wa] (倭人條) of the ancient Chinese text Sankuo Chih [Records of Three Kingdoms] (三國志) that is the oldest written document describing Japan. The section "The Wa People" is generally called Wei-chih Wo-jen-chuan [Account of the Wa People by Wei] (魏志倭人傳; Japanese: Gishi Wajinden). After this quotation on the text, descriptions of more provinces of Wa continue such as Ito (伊都國), Na (奴國), Fumi (不彌國) and Tohma (投馬國) Provinces and eventually it reaches the famous Yamatai Province (邪馬壹國). However, Yamatai is not the topic for this time. We are going to mainly discuss about the "Guya Korea" that appears in the beginning of the Account of the Wa People.
On February 27, 1953, South Korea militarily invaded Japanese islets Takeshima (竹島; Korean: Dokdo 獨島) and these islets have been under the control of South Korea over a half century. Koreans are not satisfied by ruling only Takeshima and have begun exposing their ambition to further invade Tsushima Islands (對馬; called Demado 對馬島 by Koreas). Because of the constitutional restriction, the Japanese government has weak-kneed diplomacy toward South Korea and has shelved this issue for long time that obviously made Koreans to be puffed up. But we should not allow Koreans to further invade our territory. As long as South Korea insists to assert its sovereignties over Takeshima and Tsushima, we can take our countermeasure to restrain Koreans. "Guya Korea," as one of the historical evidences, is my first suggestion as a countermeasure against South Korea.
Guya Korea — the description in the "Account of the Wa People" is as following:
從郡至倭、循海岸水行、歴韓國、乍南乍東、到其北岸狗邪韓國、七千餘里。The way to Wa from the Daifang Commandery: sail along the coast, pass along Hanguk (Korea), keep going sometimes to the south and sometimes to the east, and then you will reach its northern coast Guya Hanguk (Guya Korea). The distance is over 7,000 li's.NB: South Koreans call their country as "Hanguk." The country is internationally known as "Korea" that was named by the Westerners. Han means Korea and Guk means "a country."
The location of Guya Korea is in the southeast coast area of the Korean Peninsula that area includes current Gimhae (金海) in Gyeongsangnam-do Province (慶尚南道) and the Busan Metropolitan City (釜山). Gimhae is near the estuary of the Naktong River (洛東江) that area was called in the ancient time Guya Hanguk (Guya Korea), Imna Gaya (任那加羅), Geumgwan Gaya (金官伽耶; 43-532), Geumgwan-guk (金官國), Bon-gaya (本加羅), Garakguk (駕洛國) and Nam-gaya [South Gaya] (南加羅).
There was a union of small states called the "Gaya Confederacy" (加羅) (successor to Byeonhan 弁韓 or Byeonjin 弁辰) in the south end area of the peninsula. Guya Korea (as South Gaya) shared the position of leaders of the Confederacy with Goryeong Gaya (高霊加羅 or Daegaya 大加羅) on the north.
In the sixth century, Geumgwan Gaya was oppressed by Silla (新羅 57 BCE-935 CE) that existed in the current Gyeongsangbuk-do Province (慶尚北道). In 532, King Kim Gu-Hyeong (Guhae) (金仇亥王 or 金仇衡王; r. 521-532) capitulated to Silla and Geumwan Gaya ended. King Kim and his royal house was accepted into the Silla aristocracy at the capitol of Silla Geongju (慶州) and the family ironically flourished there. Their descendants are called as "Kim family of Gimhae" (金海金氏).
The location of Guya Korea is described in the "Account of the Wa People" as:
Its northern coast
The question is what "its northern coast" means, from which point "Guya Korea" lies as "its north." The location of Guya Korea is the southeast coast of the Korean Peninsula. In a view of the present state of Korea, or from a Chinese domain Daifang Commandery (current Seoul area), it must be described as the "south coast" because Guya Korea is in the southeast coast of the peninsula. Nevertheless, it is written as "its northern coast." It is hard to believe that "southern" is mistakenly written as "northern." The only place that can see "Guya Korea" lying as "its northern coast" is exclusively,
倭 = 日本
Wa = Japan
If the possessive case "its" indicates Wa (Japan), therefore, Guya Korea was supposed a part of the Wa Confederacy. It suggests that Wa was a confederacy over a strait: Kyûshû (southern coast) and Guya Korea (northern coast). Nevertheless what the ancient Chinese record says, South Korea never accepts this historical fact, the "Japanese Prefecture Mimana" (任那日本府; Korean: Imna) existed in the south coast of the Korean Peninsula and concludes that it is an imaginary existence. Once again, here is the description of Guya Korea in the Account of the Wa.
從郡至倭、循海岸水行、歴韓國、乍南乍東、到其北岸狗邪韓國、七千餘里。The way to Wa from the Daifang Commandery: sail along the coast, pass along Hanguk (Korea), keep going sometimes south and sometimes east, and then you will reach its northern coast Guya Hanguk (Guya Korea). The distance is over 7,000 li's.
Before "its north coast Guya Korea," there is another remarkable description, "pass along Korea."
What does it mean "pass along Korea ... and then you will reach its north coast Guya Korea?" Before arriving at Guya Korea, it describes "pass along Korea." It sounds enigmatic but still suggests that Guya Korea did not belong to Korea. The most natural interpretation is to regard Guya Korea as a part of the Wa Confederacy; in other words, Guya Korea was a province of Japan.
The following is further evidence in the Records of Three Kingdoms, so-called Wei chih Han chuan [Account of Korea by Wei] (魏志韓傳).
三國志 魏書 東夷傳 韓條
"Ts'ao Wei history" of Sankuo chih ('Records of Three Kingdoms')
Volume "Tung yi chuan" (Account of East Dwarfs)
Section "Han chuan" (Korea)
韓在帶方之南、東西以海爲限、南與倭接。方可四千里。有三種、一曰馬韓、二曰辰韓、三曰弁韓。辰韓者、古之辰國也。馬韓在西。其民土著、種植、知蠶桑、作緜布。各有長帥、大者自名爲臣智、其次爲邑借、散在山海間、無城郭。Han (韓 Korea) is located on the south of the Daifang Commandery. Its eastern and western sides face the sea, and its southern border adjoins Wa (Japan). Its size is about a 4,000 square li's (310km/190mi). There are three Han Confederacies: Mahan (馬韓; 1st century BC-3rd century), Jinhan (辰韓 1st century BC-4th century CE) and Byeonhan (弁韓; CE-4th century). Byeonhan is the successor of the ancient Jin State (辰國 2nd-3rd centuries BCE). The location of Mahan is in the west, people are indigenous. They seed, rear silkworms and weave. Each confederacy has its leader: The tribal chief calls himself as Sinji (臣智) and the secondary is Eubjeog (邑借). Their villages are scattered between the mountains and the sea. There are no castles.
The beginning of the Account of Korea explains the geographical location of Korea. According to the description, Korea is located on the south of the Chinese Daifang Commandery, its eastern side faces the Sea of Japan, its western side faces the Yellow Sea, and its southern border "adjoins Wa." This is the question how to interpret the description, "[Korea's] southern border adjoins Wa." Since Guya Korea is located in the south end of the peninsula, if Guya Korea was a part of Korea, the description in the Account of Korea must NOT be,
韓在帶方之南、東西以海爲限The location of Han (Korea) is the south of the Daifang Commandery. Its eastern and western sides face the sea.
It must be written as:
韓在帶方之南、東西南以海爲限The location of Han (Korea) is the south of the Daifang Commandery. Its eastern, western and southern sides face the sea.
Current South Korea claims that Tsushima islands (and also north Kûshû) originally belonged to Korea. If so, the description in the Account of Korea must be written as follow:
韓在帶方之南、東西以海爲限、歴狗邪韓國、始度一海、千餘里至對馬國。又南渡一海千餘里、至一大國。又渡一海千余里、到其南岸末廬國。The location of Han (Korea) is the south of the Daifang Commandery. Its east and west sides face the sea. The way to Wa from the Daifang Commandery: sail along the coast, pass along Guya Hanguk (Guya Korea). This is the first time to go across the sea: Sailing over 1,000 li's, you will arrive at Tsuikai. Over 1,000 li's further to the south across the sea called Kankai, you will reach Itai Province. And furthermore, over 1,000 li's to the south across the sea, you will reach its southern coast Matsuro Province (of Kyûshû, Japan).
The actual document just says "its southern border adjoins Wa." There is no description of the "sea" between Korea and Wa such as "sailing xxxx li's across the sea." The description in the Account of Korea, therefore, only leads the conclusion,
There is no sea between Korea and Wa.
(Korea adjoins Wa continentally)
Now we can review the description of Guya Korea in the Account of the Wa People once again:
從郡至倭、循海岸水行、歴韓國、乍南乍東、到其北岸狗邪韓國、七千餘里。The way to Wa from the Daifang Commandery: sail along the coast, pass along Hanguk (Korea), keep going sometimes to the south and sometimes to the east, and then you will reach its northern coast Guya Hanguk (Guya Korea). The distance is over 7,000 li's.
Guya Korea — the leader of the South Gaya Confederacy Mimana (任那) — belonged to Japan. It paradoxically enlightens another aspect that the sovereignty over the whole South Gaya area including Gimhae City in Gyeongsangnam-do Province (慶尚南道) and Busan Metropolitan City (the second city of South Korea that has a population of 3,700,000) historically belong to Japan.
Busan Metropolitan City and Gyeongsangnam-do Province
If we actually claim this, it is not hard to imagine that South Korean people will be extremely upset. But this is exactly what they are doing against Japan. South Korea claims its sovereignty over Tsushima Islands on the bases of the "Silla Bongi" [Silla section] (新羅本紀) in the Samguk Sagi [Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms] (三國史記, completed in 1145, Korea) and Sejong Sillok [Annals of King Sejong] (世宗實録, 1431, Korea) that were edited a thousand years after the "Account of the Wa." This is our countermeasure to claim our sovereignty over the south coast area of the Korean Peninsula based on the historical evidence in the Records of Three Kingdoms. If South Korea really insists on acquiring its sovereignty over these small islands Takeshima and Tsushima, we can exchange these islands with Busan Metropolitan City and Gyeongsangnam-do Province. It's not a bad deal for us.
In order to recapture the unlawfully occupied islets Takeshima, and to defend our territory Tsushima Islands from South Korea's evil design, we can bargain with Seoul for a much bigger compensation. This is the diplomatic technique — war without weapons — to drag them out to sit at the negotiating table. If they still refuse to negotiate, and then the international society will clearly realize that South Korea is always escaping because Seoul is afraid of its illegal action on Takeshima to be exposed before the international society.
The Japanese government, especially the Foreign Minister needs much higher skills of diplomatic strategy, sometimes gentle and sometimes decisive, at our own pace. People are powerless in front of the state powers, not just weak-kneed diplomacy escaping from causing even tiny conflicts. The government is responsible for the political leadership to protect our people and national interests that all the people can trust. This is the meaning of the "country" what I believe.
Related information (Links)
- Records of Three Kingdoms (三國志). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
- Daifang Commandery (帶方郡). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
- Gaya Confederacy (加羅 or 伽耶). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
- Samhan [Three Korean confederacies] (三韓). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
- King Kim Guhyeong of Geumgwan Gaya (金官伽耶國 金仇亥王). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
- Samguk Sagi [Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms] (三國史記). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
- Sejong Daewang, Sejong the Great of Joseon (世宗大王). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.